EXPERT HOME INSPECTIONS232 Main Street, Elbridge, New York 13060 - (315) 380-3294
Particulate Matter Pollution
What are PM 2.5 and
PM 10 Pollutants?
Particulate matter (PM) or particle pollution in the air is a mixture of airborne tiny particles and liquid droplets that consists of tiny solid fragments, liquid fragments, and fragments mixing with both solid and liquid.Thesetinyfragmentsaremadeupofvariouscomponents,suchasacids,toxicexhaust,organic chemicals,metal,dust,soot,soil,oramixtureofthesecomponents.Therearemanyclassesof particulates. However, among these classes, PM10 and PM2.5 are the most regulated ones.●PM10 refers to inhalable coarse particles that are with a diameter of about 10 micrometers.●PM2.5 refers to fine particles that are 2.5 micrometers in diameter and smaller.
Sources of PM2.5 & PM10
Therearebothnaturalandanthropogenic(i.e.manmade)sourcesofPM2.5.Carbonaceous (organic)materialfromtrafficcausesadirectadverseeffectonhealthandhasbeenidentifiedasa most evident source of PM2.5. Burning fuels such as oil, gasoline, or wood can directly contribute to the rising of PM levels. On the other hand, windblown dust and chemical reactions between different gases (e.g., nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus etc.) and other substances (e.g., ammonia) can indirectly enhance the rising of atmospheric PM levels.PowerstationsaswellasIndustrialsourcescontributemosttomanmadepollutants(35%),trailed byvehiclesorroadtraffic(24%),suburban(13%),andshipping(10%).Naturalsourcesofparticulate matterincludeseasaltthatresultsin5-15%ofurbanbackgroundPM2.5andwithhigher contributions found near the coastal areas.
Health Effects of PM2.5 & PM10
Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has harmful consequences on human health, the environment, and climate change. Many researches have already provided multitudes of information concerning the hazardous adverse effects of PM exposure.AsPM2.5arefinerparticles,theycanpenetratedeeplyandtravelthroughtherespiratorysystemto reachthelung.TheCommitteeontheMedicalEffectsofAirPollutants(COMEAP)reportedthat high-level exposure to PM could increase hospital admissions and premature death of the old and sick because of respiratory and cardiovascular system illnesses. As evidence, the COMEAP showed statisticaldataonhighpollutiondaysandthisdatarevealedthatbothPM10andPM2.5caused additionalhospitaladmissionsandprematuredeaths.TheEPAhasmoreinformationon theeffects of particulatepollution.Long-term PM exposure is associated with chronic respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases, including lung cancer, neurodevelopmental disorders, poor cognitive function, diabetes, and heart attack.Short-termPMexposureduringpollutionepisodescanproducelesssevereeffects,including temporary breathing difficulty, worsening of asthma symptoms, feeling of unwell, decreased activity level, etc.In addition to adverse health effects, PM2.5 also has other widespread effects on the environment andclimatechange.Theenvironmentaleffectcancontributetobiodiversityloss,damagingplants as well as corrosion of buildings.
eTVOC - Equivalent Total Volatile Organic Compounds
What Does eTVOC Mean?
eTVOCstandsforequivalenttotalvolatileorganiccompounds(VOCs)andisameasurementofthe totalamountofanyemittedgasescomingfromtoxinsandchemicals.Whenyouhaveanenclosed spacelikeahomeoroffice,theseemittedgasesaccumulateandpollutetheair.Theairquality surveydoesNOTspeciatewhatalltheVOCsare,itsimplygivesthetotalamountofallVOCsinthe air.Volatile organic compounds are gases that are given off by many indoor sources that evaporate at room temperature. Concentrations of most volatile organic compounds are higher in indoor air than outdoor air.
Sources of VOCs
SomesourcesofVOCsincludetheburningoffuelssuchasgas,woodandkeroseneandtobacco products. VOCs can also come from personal care products such as perfume and hair spray, cleaning agents, dry cleaning fluid, paints and paint thinner, lacquers, varnishes, hobby supplies, alcohols, vinegars and from copying and printing machines.Elevated VOC levels could be caused by a Mold infestation, gas leak, or off gassing of building materialsandisaconcernforoverallindoorairquality.Thesecompoundsincludeanumberof toxiccompounds,includingbenzene,toluene,andformaldehyde.Moldcanproduceanumberof VOCs.Thesecompoundsarewhatproducethe“musty”smellassociatedwithMoldinfested dwellings. While most of the compounds are innocuous, there is experimental evidence that some ofthesecompoundscouldbetoxic.DetectionofVOCisyetanothertoolthatcanbeusedto detectandlocateanactivemoldinfestation,astheyareonlyproducedbyactivelygrowing mold colonies.VOCscanbereleasedfromproductsduringuseandeveninstorage.However,theamountofVOCs emitted from products tends to decrease as the product ages.Formaldehyde, one of the most common VOCs, is a colorless gas with an acrid (sharp and bitter) smell. It is common in many building materials such as plywood, particleboard and glues. Formaldehyde can also be found in some drapes and fabrics and in certain types of foam insulation.*Formaldehyde compounds are not speciated with the Pocket Particle AQI 2.0 Sensor.
Health Effects of VOCs
VOCsincludeavarietyofchemicalsthatcancauseeye,noseandthroatirritation,shortnessof breath, headaches, fatigue, nausea, dizziness and skin problems. Higher concentrations may cause irritation of the lungs, as well as damage to the liver, kidney, or central nervous system. Long-term exposure may also cause damage to the liver, kidneys or central nervous system.Some VOCs are suspected of causing cancer and some have been shown to cause cancer in humans. The health effects caused by VOCs depend on the concentration and length of exposure to the chemicals.Most people are not affected by short-term exposure to the low levels of VOCs found in homes. Somepeoplemaybemoresensitive,suchaspeoplewithasthma.Forlong-termexposuretolow levelsof VOCs,researchis ongoingto betterunderstandany healtheffectsfromthese exposures.
eCO2 - Equivalent Carbon Dioxide
What Does eCO2 Mean?
Equivalentcarbondioxide,alsoknownas“CO2e”,“eCO2”,“CO2eq”,“CO2equivalent”,oreven“CDE”, and these terms can be used interchangeably. This term is used for describing different greenhouse gases in a common unit. For any quantity and type of greenhouse gas, eCO2 signifies the amount of CO2whichwouldhavetheequivalentglobalwarmingimpact.eCO2bottomlinestartsat400ppm (partsper million),thecurrentenvironmentalbackgroundlevel ofCO2.ٰ⁻
Sources of CO2
CO2 is the fourth most abundant gas in the earth's atmosphere. At room temperature, carbon dioxide(CO2)isacolorless,odorless,non-flammablegas.Atothertemperaturesandpressures, carbon dioxide can be a liquid or a solid. Solid carbon dioxide is called dry ice because it slowly changes from a cold solid directly into a gas.Carbondioxideisabyproductofnormalcellfunctionwhenitisbreathedoutofthebody.CO2is also produced when fossil fuels are burned or decaying vegetation. Surface soils can sometimes contain high concentrations of this gas, from decaying vegetation or chemical changes in the bedrock.
Health Effects of CO2
ExposuretoCO2canproduceavarietyofhealtheffects.Thesemayincludeheadaches,dizziness, restlessness,atinglingorpinsorneedlesfeeling,difficultybreathing,sweating,tiredness,increased heartrate, raisedbloodpressure,coma,asphyxia,andconvulsions.PDF VERSION OF THIS PAGEGO TO TOP OF PAGEEXPERT HOME INSPECTIONS - 232 MAIN STREET - ELBRIDGE, NEW YORK (315) 380-3294
Particulate matter (PM) or particle pollution in the air is a mixture of airborne tiny particles and liquid droplets that consists of tiny solid fragments, liquid fragments, and frag-ments mixing with both solid and liquid.Thesetinyfragmentsaremadeupofvariouscompo-nents,suchasacids,toxicexhaust,organic chemicals,metal,dust,soot,soil,oramixtureofthesecomponents.Therearemanyclassesof particulates. However, among these classes, PM10 and PM2.5 are the most regulated ones.●PM10 refers to inhalable coarse particles that are with a diameter of about 10 micrometers.●PM2.5 refers to fine particles that are 2.5 micrometers in diameter and smaller.
EXPERT HOME INSPECTIONS232 Main Street, Elbridge, New York 13060 - (315) 380-3294